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Luisa Migliorati identifies her therefore as a girl. She is tall and slim; she has larger breasts; her face has lost its baby fat and she has pronounced cheekbones. Like the matrons, she wears a chiton—and it would be difficult to distinguish her from the matrons if not for her hair and perhaps her offering—a ball or a piece of fruit. Matrons seem to offer more costly or more domestic gifts-- a fat dove, for example, or a small box. But D has surely not reached puberty and boys also carry balls at Lavinium so the offering of a toy seems to be associated here with a broad group of children and adolescents-- not with a particular gender or a particular event.
I think that the cutting of the hair is key to interpreting the position of this group of girls in Roman society but I do not think that it is a mark of passage. To add to the difficulties posed by this group, there are differences in the treatment of the hair that have to be considered as well. Luigi Sensi, writing before the Lavinium deposit was published, argued that the same term, seni crines, referred to a ritual cutting of the hair of brides-to-be but Plautus Mostell. If these girls were engaged, we cannot know it from their hair and the cutting of the hair can be interpreted in other ways.
We know from Latin literature, for example, that girls participated in public ritual: choruses of unmarried girls-- described simply as virgines, no age specified-- were formed on special occasions to sing poems carmina or assist in supplicationes; at Lanuvium, a maiden virgo was chosen each year to make a food offering to a snake that lived in a cave sacred to Juno Prop. NH Since the Vestals were in perpetual observance, their hair remained short throughout their years of service; the hair of girls chosen for choruses or other temporary roles in ritual was allowed to grow back when their service ended.
The participation of Greek girls in ritual, like the kanephoroi, was often commemorated with a statue. Two points: First, in Rome and central Italy, participation in ritual was a critical part of elite feminine status. Without going into debate as to what occasions these particular reliefs recall—marriages, funerals, or ritual—it is clear they are rare allusions to a practice that is often noted by Roman authors, from Republic to Late Empire, but seldom depicted.
These married girls have just taken their place among the matrons; the girls with cropped hair, engaged or not, are matrons-to-be. A similar one is worn by a mature woman in a tomb painting from Paestum—the image of a mother welcoming her son.
At Rome the conflict between the Orders, outside Rome, the annexation of new territories gave special importance to marriage as a way of effecting alliances between elite families—patricians, plebeians, Romans, non-Romans. In conclusion, the Lavinium votives allow us to compare Roman literary sources with concrete examples of feminine dress of a comparatively early date. The statues of married girls model the pre-imperial costume of the Roman matron; those of unmarried girls provide insight into the iconography of girls and allow us to speculate more concretely about their lives.
The Lavinium votives, with their carefully reproduced jewelry and other attributes, allow us to envision an ongoing celebration of maturation and one that—for some children and adolescents-- may have had aspects of a cursus honorum. According to Pliny NH Her hair is very short, with the loose ends slicked back and tucked under the rolls of the infula, the felted woolen diadem worn by the Vestals. The infula is composed of a thick pad or band that encircles the head, with long felted streamers at the nape of the neck.
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Two portraits in Florence and Rome show the forehead hair again tucked under the infula but on these portraits the hair appears longer than that of the Cancelleria Vestal. Jucker calls a Flechtenkranz. Short tufts of cut hair escape from beneath the infula and braids at the cheeks and neck. Little attention is given within the Kranz to individual strands of hair, although this kind of naturalistic detail is apparent in the wisps of cut hair around the face and on the neck.
The Kranz looks more like a braided rug--flat strips of braided wool sown together with a zigzag stitch. This braided band or bands may be a version of the vittae, which as Fantham has shown, is a generic term for a complex of woolen head ornaments that could take different forms and was known by other, more specific names. In my view, this interpretation of the passage builds a clearer basis for understanding the remaining, corrupt portion of the passage than other readings to date.
It is useful to note, however, that ritually bound hair was also required for girls who acted as assistants to the flaminica-- the sacerdotulae. According to Varro L. Binding may have symbolized chastity and the form that the binding took was similar for brides and Vestals-to-be-- both groups in a liminal state. It was more elaborate for priestesses like the initiated Vestals, with their infulae, and apparently less so for the sacerdotulae, whose roles in cult were secondary to that of the flaminica with her tutulus Varro LL 7.
Castagnoli, F. Il culto di Minerva a Lavinium. Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei Quaderno Rome: Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei.
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Connelly, J. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Cristofani, M. Martelli eds. Novara: Istituto Geografico De Agostini. Dolansky, F. Edmondson, J. Keith Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. Enea nel Lazio: archeologia e mito.
Rome: Fratelli Palombi. Evans, J. War, Women and Children in Ancient Rome. London and New York: Routledge. Fantham, E. Flemming, R. Edited by F. Glinister and C. BICS Supplement London: Institute of Classical Studies. Gabelmann, H.
Gerhard, E. Etruskische Spiegel. Berlin: Reimer. Graf, F. Edited by S.
Deacy and A. Leiden: Brill. Jucker, H. La Follette, L. Weis 12 Lelis, A. The Age of Marriage in Ancient Rome. Studies in Classics Lewiston: Edwin Mellen Press. Oliver, A. Women in Roman Art and Society, , edited by D. Kleiner and S. Austin: University of Texas Press. Olson, K. Dress and the Roman Woman: Self-presentation and Society.
Roman Dress and the Fabrics of Roman Culture, Saller, R. Patriarchy, Property, and Death in the Roman Family. New York: Cambridge University Press. Scholz, B. Schuhmann, E. Schultz, C. Sebesta, J. Bonfante eds. The World of Roman Costume. About the Author Victoria Cosner has spent the better part of thirty years poking around graveyards and digging for lost pieces of history. She is especially fond of delving into missing pieces of women's history. She co-authored a book, Women under the Third Reich Greenwood Publishing , and next turned her attention to the infamous Madame Lalaurie and her incredible family.
It wasn't long before another bizarre historical figure caught her attention: Dr.
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Joseph Nash McDowell. A longtime member of the Association for Gravestone Studies, she has worked in public history facilities for more than twenty years and has her master's degree in American studies, specializing in cultural landscapes of garden cemeteries. Lorelei Shannon has spent the better part of thirty years following Victoria Cosner around graveyards for her own inscrutable purposes.
Lorelei and Victoria met at the tender age of fourteen. From the very start, they shared a love of history--particularly the obscure and unusual. While Victoria went on to become a respected historian, Lorelei became a novelist.