On the Border with Crook (1892) [REVISED ILLUSTRATED EDITION]
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His savage cartoon "The American River Ganges", depicts Catholic bishops, guided by Rome, as crocodiles moving in to attack American school children as Irish politicians prevent their escape. He portrayed public support for religious education as a threat to democratic government.
The authoritarian papacy in Rome, ignorant Irish Americans, and corrupt politicians at Tammany Hall figured prominently in his work. Nast favored nonsectarian public education that mitigated differences of religion and ethnicity. However, in Nast and Harper's Weekly supported the Republican-dominated board of education in Long Island in requiring students to hear passages from the King James Bible , and his educational cartoons sought to raise anti-Catholic and anti-Irish fervor among Republicans and independents.
Nast expressed anti-Irish sentiment by depicting them as violent drunks. He used Irish people as a symbol of mob violence, machine politics, and the exploitation of immigrants by political bosses. Nast was physically small and had experienced bullying as a child. In , he witnessed the New York City draft riots in which a mob composed mainly of Irish immigrants burned the Colored Orphan Asylum to the ground. His experiences may explain his sympathy for black Americans and his "antipathy to what he perceived as the brutish, uncontrollable Irish thug".
In general, his political cartoons supported American Indians and Chinese Americans.
He advocated the abolition of slavery , opposed racial segregation , and deplored the violence of the Ku Klux Klan. In one of his more famous cartoons, the phrase "Worse than Slavery" is printed on a coat of arms depicting a despondent black family holding their dead child; in the background is a lynching and a schoolhouse destroyed by arson. Two members of the Ku Klux Klan and White League , paramilitary insurgent groups in the Reconstruction-era South, shake hands in their mutually destructive work against black Americans.
Despite Nast's championing of minorities, Morton Keller writes that later in his career "racist stereotypy of blacks began to appear: comparable to those of the Irish—though in contrast with the presumably more highly civilized Chinese. Nast introduced into American cartoons the practice of modernizing scenes from Shakespeare for a political purpose.
Nast also brought his approach to bear on the usually prosaic almanac business, publishing an annual Nast's Illustrated Almanac from to Nast's drawings were instrumental in the downfall of Boss Tweed , the powerful Tammany Hall leader. As commissioner of public works for New York City, Tweed led a ring that by had gained total control of the city's government, and controlled "a working majority in the State Legislature".
Connolly controller of public expenditures , and Mayor A. Oakey Hall —defrauded the city of many millions of dollars by grossly inflating expenses paid to contractors connected to the Ring. Nast, whose cartoons attacking Tammany corruption had appeared occasionally since , intensified his focus on the four principal players in and especially in I made up my mind not long ago to put some of those fellows behind the bars". Tweed was arrested in and convicted of fraud.
When Tweed attempted to escape justice in December by fleeing to Cuba and from there to Spain , officials in Vigo were able to identify the fugitive by using one of Nast's cartoons.
On the Border With Crook
Grant in and McClellan , who positioned himself as the "peace candidate", Harper's Weekly published Nast's cartoon "Compromise with the South — Dedicated to the Chicago Convention", which criticized McClellan's peace platform as pro-South. Millions of copies were made and distributed nationwide, and Nast was later credited with aiding Lincoln's campaign in a critical moment. Grant attributed his victory to "the sword of Sheridan and the pencil of Thomas Nast. Nast and his wife moved to Morristown, New Jersey in and there they raised a family that eventually numbered five children.
In , Nast toured the United States as a lecturer and a sketch-artist.
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Hayes ' presidential election in Hayes later remarked that Nast was "the most powerful, single-handed aid [he] had",  but Nast quickly became disillusioned with President Hayes, whose policy of Southern pacification he opposed. The death of the Weekly ' s publisher, Fletcher Harper , in resulted in a changed relationship between Nast and his editor George William Curtis.
His cartoons appeared less frequently, and he was not given free rein to criticize Hayes or his policies. I try to hit the enemy between the eyes and knock him down. Harper Jr.
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Between and , Nast's work appeared only sporadically in Harper's , which began publishing the milder political cartoons of William Allen Rogers. Although his sphere of influence was diminishing, from this period date dozens of his pro-Chinese immigration drawings, often implicating the Irish as instigators. Nast blamed U. Senator James G.
Nast was one of the few editorial artists who took up for the cause of the Chinese in America. During the presidential election of , Nast felt that he could not support the Republican candidate, James A. As a result, "Nast's commentary on the campaign lacked passion", according to Halloran. Blaine , a proponent of high tariffs and the spoils system whom they perceived as personally corrupt.
Nast's cartoons helped Cleveland become the first Democrat to be elected President since In the words of the artist's grandson, Thomas Nast St Hill, "it was generally conceded that Nast's support won Cleveland the small margin by which he was elected. In this his last national political campaign, Nast had, in fact, 'made a president'. Nast's tenure at Harper's Weekly ended with his Christmas illustration of December It was said by the journalist Henry Watterson that "in quitting Harper's Weekly , Nast lost his forum: in losing him, Harper's Weekly lost its political importance.
Nast lost most of his fortune in after investing in a banking and brokerage firm operated by the swindler Ferdinand Ward. In need of income, Nast returned to the lecture circuit in and His mode of cartooning had come to be seen as outdated, and a more relaxed style exemplified by the work of Joseph Keppler was in vogue. Now returned to the Republican fold, Nast used the Weekly as a vehicle for his cartoons supporting Benjamin Harrison for president.
The magazine had little impact and ceased publication seven months after it began, shortly after Harrison's defeat. The failure of Nast's Weekly left Nast with few financial resources. He received a few commissions for oil paintings and drew book illustrations. In , he applied for a job in the State Department, hoping to secure a consular position in western Europe. He contracted the disease and died on December 7 of that year. Nast's depictions of iconic characters, such as Santa Claus  and Uncle Sam, are widely credited as forming the basis of popular depictions used today.
Additional contributions by Nast include:. The Wall Street Journal reported that because of his stereotypical cartoons of the Irish, a number of objections were raised about Nast's work. The Thomas Nast Award  has been presented each year since by the Overseas Press Club  to an editorial cartoonist for the "best cartoons on international affairs.
Winners receive 1, Euros, a trip to Landau, and the Thomas Nast medal.
The word " nasty " is erroneously thought to originate from Nast's name, due to the tone of his cartoons. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Thomas Nast. Guayaquil , Ecuador. The Tammany Tiger Loose—"What are you going to do about it? An Nast cartoon supporting the Fifteenth Amendment  . The New York Times. August 2, Retrieved In Grove Art Online. Oxford Art Online. Retrieved October 7, History of Education Quarterly 45 2 : — [www. The Nast cartoon of Charles Adams' campaign for governor is seen here. Retrieved February 24, November On This Day: HarpWeek. The New York Times Company.
Archived from the original on November 23, Retrieved November 23, Thomas Nast Cartoons. Archived from the original on March 5, Retrieved March 5, Political Cartoonists Impact Presidential Races: Throughout history cartoonists' influence has varied, but the enduring trade lives on , U. Thomas Nast, Political Cartoonist. Athens: University of Georgia Press, Crook Body Guard to President Lincoln.
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Sturgiss, Marshall D. Lindheimer, John M. Treatment of Secondary Hyperparathyroidism by Intravenous Calcitriol. Cees G. Kallenberg, Jan W. Cohen Tervaert. Back Matter Pages About this book Introduction The International Yearbook of Nephrology is the 4th in a successful series of yearly books updating practising nephrologists and nephrologists-in-training on rapidly changing areas of nephrology. We were encouraged to proceed in our editorial venture by reviews of the previous issues which have appeared in various Nephrology Journals.
These reviews have pointed to the successful use of the International Editorial Board, the broad range of topics of current interest which have been covered and the comprehensive and practical nature of the reviews. The principal aim of the Yearbook remains to provide reviews which are more current than those which appear in Nephrology textbooks and which can be in the hands of the readers a few months after the authors have completed the manuscripts.
The appointed authors are always experts in the field, who are asked to give an objective review of the topic, up-dating the readers on the world-wide literature and providing them with a complete, accurate and up-ta-date list of important recent references.